如何区别定语从句英语/第4课

发布时间 : 2020/09/15 19:59

我被最常问到的问题之一,就是怎样区分定语从句,宾语从句和状语从句?今日我们对前面几节课的内容做一些提炼,探究下怎样一眼就能辨别三大从句。

观点

3大从句的区别均在于前面两个字:定语、宾语和状语:


知道了这几个观点,这三种从句就很好明白了:

定语从句:作定语的从句,做adj.修饰先行词;


在这里,dog “狗子” 是先行词,即“走在定语从句前面的名词”;定语从句 that shits a lot 此中的 that,指代了前面的 dog,告诉我们这是一条怎样的狗子:拉许多的狗子。

宾语从句:作宾语的从句,放在动词或介词背面;


第一句,宾语从句为普通的叙述句,放在 think 这个行动背面,由连接词 that 引导。

第二句,宾语从句已经改成叙述句语序,原来人讲的话则是一样平常疑问句 Do you let it go “你丫放不放手” ?该从句放在 depend on 的介词 on 背面,一样平常疑问句由 whether/ if 引导。

状语从句:作状语的从句,给主句增长信息量。

状语从句,是3大从句中比较好记的一种:有个完备的主句,从句是提供更多信息的,好比上述例句告诉我们他为什么养狗。只要认识 九大状语从句的引导词 (← 戳可察看),大概一眼就能辨别出状语从句。

当堂训练

如今,我们一起看几个句子找找感觉。请判定下列句子是定语从句,宾语从句还是状语从句?

青 铜

1. If it is fine tomorrow, I will visit you.

2. I helped an old man who lost his way.

3. I don’t know what I should do next.


白 银

4. Mom hates our neighbor whose dog shits at our door.

5. Mom hates our neighbor because his dog shits at our door.

6. Mom asks our neighbor why his dog is so annoying.


黄 金

7. Stephen Hillenburg, who created ‘SpongeBob’, died at the age of 57.

8. Stan Lee explained that he used a false name because he wanted to write a serious and great piece of literature someday. He did not want his link with comic books to be known when that happened.

9. A Chinese scientist claims he successfully created the world's first genetically-edited babies.

剖析: 确切而言,who created 'SpongeBob' 黑白限定性定语从句,起增补说明的作用,去掉也不影响主句的完备性;非限定性的特性之一是从句前有逗号,详细参考 前几期文章 (← 戳可察看)。


剖析: 这句话摘自 VOA慢速英语 ,沉住气还是可以辨清此中各种从句的:Stan Lee explained 背面的剩余部分,就是“讲明”这个行动的宾语从句;这个从句中,又包含 because 引导的缘故状语从句,告诉我们斯坦李用化名的缘故。

第二句末,另有个短短的、由 when 引导的时间状语从句。



剖析: 找到动词 claim “声称”,就很轻易就定位到背面的宾语从句,只是省略了 that。从句一个完备的句子,有主语 he,谓语 created,宾语 the world's first genetically-edited babies。

王 者

10. There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.

11. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not,or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

12. It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words,all we can do is articulate our reactions to it.

剖析: pollution monitor “污染检测仪”在这里作先行词,放在 that 引导的定语从句前面,告诉我们这种检测仪是干什么用的;定语从句中,还包含 when 引导的时间状语从句。


剖析: 动宾动宾。在动词 explain “讲明”背面,紧跟两个 why 引导的宾语从句。这句来自考研真题,不外相对简单。


剖析: reason 的定语从句可以由 why 或 for which 引导;该定语从句中又有 when 引导的时间状语从句;

逗号背面的分句主语 all we can do 又出现一个定语从句,只是省略了关系代 词 that。

课后牢固 1) Is this park ________ we visited last week?

A. which B. where C. the one

2) Do you remember the park ________ we visited last week?

A. where B. that C. the one

3) This is the park ________ I lost my phone last week.

A. where B. that C. the one

4) His illness will not develop to the point ________ no medicine can cure her.

A. where B. that C. as

5) A computer can only do ________ you have instructed it to do.

A. how B. that C. what

6) No one knows ________ in a million years.

A. what man will look like

B. what will man look like

C. man will look like what

7) I don’t know ________ or not.

A. whether he is at home

B. if he is at home

C. that he is at home

8) If you don’t understand something, you may research, study, and talk to other people ________ you figure it out.

A. because B. until C. when

9) ________ the average age of the population increases, there are more old people to care for.

A. As B. While C. As soon as

10) ________ you may have, you should face the challenge.

A. However a serious problem

B. However serious a problem

C. What a serious problem

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「虫虫讲英语」老小咸宜的英语学习号。偶然候,语法换一种方法讲,就听懂了。
总结 定语从句:作定语/ adj. 修饰先行词; 宾语从句:作宾语,放在动词或介词后; 状语从句:作状语,给主句增长信息量。

假如可以,抽15分钟时间,把前面几节课再看一遍:

虫虫讲英语:吃定「定语从句」,只需弄懂这几点 | 虫虫讲英语​zhuanlan.zhihu.com 虫虫讲英语:宾语从句干货,8大要点梳理 | 虫虫讲英语​zhuanlan.zhihu.com 虫虫讲英语:一文理清9类状语从句 | 虫虫讲英语​zhuanlan.zhihu.com

定语从句、宾语从句和状语从句,都有自己的关系词或连接词:


对比之下,我们发现这点上 比较轻易殽杂的是定语从句和宾语从句 :宾语从句不但有可以引导一样平常疑问句的 whether, if,另有引导特别疑问句的 what 和 how。而定语从句是没有 what 和 how 等引导词的。


against引导的从句

什么是 定语从句 编辑

定义:在一个复合句中,跟在主句后修饰某一名词或代词(统称为先行词)的从句叫做 定语从句 (The Attributive Clause).被定语从句所修饰的词叫做 先行词 (Antecedent).定语从句通常跟在先行词之后,由 关系词 (Relatives)引出.因此,定语从句又可称为关系分句. 定语从句重要分为非限定性定语从句和限定性定语从句。

关系词可分为:

(1)关系代词 e.g.:that,which,who,whom,whose etc.

(2)关系副词 e.g.:when,where,why etc.

关系词既起着联系从句与主句的作用,又取代先行词在从句中担当肯定的语法成分.如主句,宾语,定语,状语等.

e.g.:

 The woman who is standing by the classroom is our Chinese teacher. 

在此句中,the woman是先行词;关系代词who引导定语从句,同年代替先行词在从句中担当主语.

 This is the room where Bin Ladin once lived. 

在此句中,the room是先行词;关系副词where引导定语从句并在从句中担当所在状语.

关系代词引导定语从句 编辑

Who:取代人.

做主语:

 The girl who plays the piano very well is his girlfriend. 

做表语:

 She is no longer the woman who she used to be. 

做宾语:

 I can't remember the man who I gave the key to. 

Whom:取代人.

做动词宾语:

 Where is the student whom Professor Nirth praised at the meeting. 

做介词宾语:

 The girl with whom he was traveling is his girlfriend. 
注:在“介词提前”即“介词+关系代词”布局出现时,关系代词只能用 whom 和 which 。

Whose(=of whom/Which):

取代人(做从句中某名词的定语):

 She is looking after the little child whose parents have gone to Singapore. 

取代物(做从句中某名词的定语):

 He lived in the room whose windows face south. 


That:

取代人:

做主语:

 The man that is speaking at the meeting is a famous scientist. 

做宾语:

 Is this the teacher that you talked about yesterday. 

做表语:

 She is no longer the girl that she was in her childhood. 

取代物:

做主语:

 The train that has just left is for Beijing. 

做宾语:

 Is this the photo that you took last summer? 

做表语:

 I wish my home town was not a polluted place that you think it to be. 


Which:取代物.

做主语:

 The building which stands near the train station is a company. 

做宾语:

 The computer which she wanted to buy was sold out. 

做表语:

 She was fond of dancing,which her husband never was. 

关系副词引导宾语从句 编辑

关系副词在意义上经常相当与一个"prep.+which"的布局.

When(=at,on,in,during + which):取代时间名词.做时间状语:

 I shall never forget the day when(on which) we moved into our new flat. 

Where(=in,at + which):取代所在名词.做时间状语:

 This is the place where(at which) John parks his car. 

Why(=for which):取代指代缘故.做缘故状语:

 She didn't know the reason why(for which) she was dismissed. 

as引导的定语从句 编辑

(1)引导限定性定语从句.

as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限定性定语从句,并在从句中做主语,宾语,表语或状语,组成:the...same as, such...as, so...as 等布局.

做主语:

 Here are such questions as are often asked by the universtiy students. 

做宾语:

 This is the same T-shirt as I have bought. 

做表语:

 She has never seen such a handsome boy as I am. 

做方法状语:

 She'll do the experiment the same way as I do. 

做时间状语:

 I came the same day as he left. 

做所在状语:

 She studies in the same college as he does. 

做缘故状语:

 She didn't believe such reason as he did so. 

做结果状语:

 Here is so difficult a question as nobody can answer. 


(2)引导非限定性定语从句. as引导非限定性定语从句时,取代整个主句,对其进行说明.一样平常用于as we all know,as is known to all,as it is,as is said above,as already mentioned abov!e,as is usual,as is often the case,as is reported in the newspaper等句式中.as引导非限定性定语从句中做主语,表语或宾语,且引出的从句!位置比较机动,可位于句首或句尾,也可插如入主句中间.通常由 逗号 将其与主句隔开.as此时有"正如...","就像..."之意.

在从句中做主语:

 As is known to China,Qu Yuan is a great Chinese poet. 

在从句中做主语:

 He forgot to bring his textbook with him,as was often the case. 

在从句中做表语:

 She is absorbed in work,as she often was. 

在从句中做宾语:

 As we all know,the moon is round. 

追问: 2019/03/28 10:58

谢谢老师的解答 另有两个问题不太明白

1.以是解释说改为that主语从句是不太合适的吗,按您的意思改为that是作agree后宾语从句的主语吗? 2.关于改为what是错误的这点还是不太明白,what Lenoato and Claudio seemed to agree was impossible. what作agree的宾语,好比 What he want was unpratical.

追问: 2019/03/28 11:00

第一点增补个例子, That Al should have married his cousin is not all surprsing.


答复: 2019/03/28 15:42

if he could not be brought to love her; which Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree was impossible, ... which 改为that 得到: that Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree was impossib le 假如that引导主语从句,that为连词,不作成分,则Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree意义不完备,无法作was impossible的主语。 That分析为指示代词作主语,Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree分析为插入语,was impossible的主语为that。这种分析的缺陷是插入语应该用逗号隔开,这里却没有逗号。下面才是准确的插入语布局: that, Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree, was impossible which改为what也不切合逻辑。 what Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree was impossible = the thing which Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree was impossible 二人好像意见同等的/同意的事情毕竟是什么,上下文看不出线索,以是这里用what和句子内容扞格难入。 which引导非限定性定语从句,除了分号不好讲明外,别的都顺理成章。 我们假设这里出现了一个错误。那么作为英语是母语的作者误将that或what用成了which的大概性大,还是排版时,误将逗号排成了分号的大概性大?显然是后者。 以是,我们如今读该小说时,将分号视为逗号之误。这是最公道的解读。

答复: 2019/03/28 15:48

That Al should have married his cousin is not all surprsing. 既然系表布局意为屡见不鲜,that从句用should就没有道理,应改为叙述语气: That Al has married his cousin is not all surprsing. 这个主语从句的意义是完备的,以是句子逻辑没有问题。只是主语长度大于谓语长度,通常接纳外置主语布局: It is not all surprising that Al has married his cousin. 小说中的which从句如改为that,主语从句的谓语seemed agree意义不清。且主语很长,谓语很短,主语从句应该接纳外置布局。以是,以为which应改为that是不当的。

答复: 2019/03/28 23:02

she would certainly die of grief, if he could not be brought to love her,which Leonato and Claudio seemed to agree was impossible, he having always been such a railer a!gainst all fair ladies, and in particular against Beatrice. 假如他无法爱他的话,她肯定会悲伤欲绝的。但李奥纳多和珂洛帝欧好像都以为他不大概爱她,由于他一向斥责全部的淑女,尤其是比亚特里斯。

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